More leisure less work: 4-day workweek

Abstract views: 586 / PDF downloads: 113




Leisure, 4 days work, recreation, work


Since 1900, working hours have been systematically decreasing. Reducing working hours, increasing public holidays and granting various social rights to employees are obligations according to the universal declaration of human rights. However, when we look at the studies conducted in recent years, it has been seen that individuals who have more free time and use this time by participating in social, sports and cultural recreational activities contribute more to the institutions they work for. In this context, many public and private organizations in our country and around the world are carrying out various studies to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the 4-day working system. The purpose of this study is to examine the free time that the 4-day working system provides to the individual and what kind of gains this time provides to the individual in both recreational and sports terms by systematic data scanning. When the results obtained are evaluated. It is seen that the 4-day working system allows the participants to be more social in terms of free time, and that most individuals who have more free time experience positive developments in both their social and psychological well-being, and in terms of workplace performance, an increase in work efficiency is observed. Although this practice provides positive feedback for both individuals and employers in most sectors, it should be known that this practice cannot be applied in every sector (service, health, tourism, etc.).


Day Week Global. (2023, Juli 22). Join our group pilot program. 4 Day Week Global.

Anghel, I., & Cohen, A. (2023, February 20). World’s largest four-day work week trial finds few are going back—BNN Bloomberg. BNN.

Aytaç, Ö. (2002). Boş zaman üzerine kuramsal yaklaşımlar. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 12(1), 231-260.

Bauer, J. (1971). Clinical staffing with a 10-hour day, 4-day work week. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 1(6), 12–14.

Baumol, W. J. (2012). The Cost Disease. Yale University Press.

Black, E. (2023, May 16). ‘Clearer heads’: Why this company is sticking to a four-day week. Australian Financial Review.

Bonnell, C. (2023, February 21). 4-day work week trial yields overwhelming success in U.K., researchers say. PBS NewsHour.

Burke, R. J. (2009). Working to live or living to work: Should individual and organizations care? Journal of Business Ethics, 84(2), 167–172.

Campbell, T. T. (2023). The four-day work week: A chronological, systematic review of the academic literature. Management Review Quarterly.

Catlin, C. S. (1997). Four-day work week improves environment. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(7), 12–15.

Cherfouh, M. (2022). The 4 day work week in Algeria: Case study SPA Casbah Company. Recherchers Economiques Manageriales, 16(2), 935–947.

Christian, A. (2023, March 20). Four-day workweek trial: The firms where it didn’t work.

Cooks-Camphell, A. (2023, March 30). Four-day workweek studies, pros, and cons.

Deshmukh, Dr. T. (2021). Can 4-day a week be a new working week in the days to come?. YMER Digital, 20(11), 127–131.

Diekmann, T., & Krampfl, T. (2022, September 13). Vier-tage-woche: Wenn schon freitag wochenende ist.

Dönges, J., & Bushwick, S. (2023, März 7). A four-day workweek reduces stress without hurting Productivity. Scientific American.

Dumazedier J., & Latouche, N. (1962). Work and leisure in French Society, Associated with the Centre d’Etudes Sociologiques, Paris Summarized by permission from Indistiruel Relations.

Ekinci, N. E., Kalkavan, A., Üstün, Ü. D., & Gündüz, B. (2014). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Sportif ve Sportif Olmayan Rekreatif Etkinliklere Katılmalarına Engel Olabilecek Unsurların İncelenmesi. Sportif Bakış: Spor ve Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(1), 1-13.

Ellis, M. (2018). The four-day work week: Why it works.

Ferraglioni, G., & Colombo, S. (2023, Februar 21). The climate benefits of a four-day workweek. BBC Future.

Fontinelle, A. (2022. November 13). The impact of working a 4-day week. Investopedia.

Fottler, M. D. (1977). Employee acceptance of a four-day workweek. The Academy of Management Journal, 20(4), 656–668.

Gilmore, O. (2023). A 4-day week for Ireland?

Gomes, P. (2022). The recent movement towards a four-day working week. In P. Goulart, R. Ramos, & G. Ferrittu (Hrsg.), Global Labour in Distress, Volume II: Earnings, (In)decent Work and Institutions (S. 471–475). Springer International Publishing.

Gostick, A. (2023. Februar 27). Is the 4-day workweek the next big thing? Forbes.

Harper, A., & Martin, A. (2018). Achiving a shorter working week in the UK.

Hedges, J. N. (1971). A look at the 4-day workweek. Monthly Labor Review, 94(10), 33–37.

Joly, J., & Hurst, L. (2023, March 2). Vier-Tage-Woche gewinnt in Europa und weltweit an Boden | Euronews.

Joly, J., Hurst, L., & Walsh, D. (2023, Juni 21). Which countries have embraced a 4-day workweek and how’s it going? Euronews.

Kahlert, D., & Schlicht, W. (2021). Aktivität, körperliche. Dorsch Lexikon der Psychologie.

Karaküçük S. (2005). Rekreasyon Boş Zamanları Değerlendirme, 5. Baskı, Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi.

Kelly, J. (2021, September 3). Scotland joins the growing global movement toward a four-day workweek. Forbes.

Kılbaş, Ş. (2001). Rekreasyon ve boş zamanı değerlendirme, İstanbul: Anaca Yayınları.

Knight, K., Rosa, E. A., & Schor, J. B. (2013). Reducing growth to achieve environmental sustainability: The role of work hours.

LaCapra, L. J. (1973). Trying out the four day work week. Public Personnel Management, 2(3), 216–220.

Lanquar R. (1991). Turizm-Seyahat Sosyolojisi, İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları.

Leibfried, A. (2023, Februar 3). Flexibler arbeiten: Wie sich die vier-tage-woche in der praxis schlägt, Planung & Analyse.

Lewsey, F. (2023, Februar 21). Would you prefer a four-day working week? University of Cambridge.

Lilly, M. T., Emovon, I., Ogaji, S. O. T., & Probert, S. D. (2007). Four-day service-staff work-week in order to complete maintenance operations more effectively in a Nigerian power-generating station. Applied Energy, 84(10), 1044–1055.

Maklan, D. M. (1977). How blue-collar workers on 4-day workweeks use their time. Monthly Labor Review, 100(8), 18–26.

Nordenbrock, K. (2023, March 13). US-Politiker bringt Gesetzentwurf für landesweite 4-Tage-Woche in Kongress. t3n Magazin.

O’Loughlin, H. (2023, July 3). 20 Countries With 4-Day Work Weeks (Trial, Proposal, Law). Buildremote.

Oberrauter-Zabransky, B. (2023, May 30). Flexibility is the key: The 4-day workweek for developers.

Office for National Statistics. (2021). Women shoulder the responsibility of ’unpaid work’, Office for National Statistics.

Opaschowski, H. W. (1983). Arbeit. Freizeit. Lebenssinn? VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Patterson I, 2000. Developing a meaningful identity for people with disabilities through serious leisure activities. World Leisure Journal, 2, 41-51

Pencavel, J. (2014). The Productivity of Working Hours. The Economic Journal.

Peters, N. (2014). Determining the demand for recreational sport at a university. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Magister in Business Administration at the Potchefstroom Campus of the North-West University.

Phelps, E. (2013). Mass Flourishing: How Grassroots Innovation Created Jobs, Challenge, and Change. Princeton University Press.

Reidhead, C. (2022). Competency and ability of workers in four day work week. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Analysis, 05(08).

RKW Hessen. (2023, July 7). Arbeitszeit pro Tag: Wie viele Stunden sind erlaubt?

Russell, E., Murphy, C., & Terry, E. (2022a). What leaders need to know before trying a 4-day work week.

Russell, E., Murphy, C., & Terry, E. (2022b, May 27). What leaders need to know before trying a 4-day work week. Harvard Business Review.

Sağcan M. (1986). Rekreasyon ve turizm. İstanbul: Cumhuriyet Basımevi.

Schmitz, V. (2023). Vier-Tage-Woche im Überblick: Wo gibt es sie und was sagen Studien?. Augsburger Allgemeine.

Siew, W. (2020, February 1). Experimenting with new work models: The four-day, 40-hour work week is an American tradition borne from the factories of Henry Ford; more employers are now challenging that standard. Can there be new models for work? ProQuest.

Sleath, P. (2021, October 25). A four-day work week: Yay or nay?

Smith, M. (2023, April 14). 4 countries that are embracing—Or experimenting with. The 4-day workweek. CNBC.

Spencer, D. A. (2022). A four-day working week: Its role in a politics of work. The Political Quarterly, 93(3), 401–407.

Steinhorst, C. (2023). Challenging the hype: why a 4-day work week won’t solve burnout. Forbes.

Stronge, W., Harper, A., Guizzo, D., Lewis, K., & Ellis-Petersen, M. (2019). The shorter working week: A radical and pragmatic proposal. VOCEDplus, the international tertiary education and research database.

Taylor, M. (2021, Mai 27). Four-day working week would slash UK carbon footprint, report says. The Guardian.

Thoms, S. (2023, Juli 5). Pros and cons of the four-day workweek. Dw.Com.

Timsit, A. (2023, Februar 24). A four-day workweek pilot was so successful most firms say they won’t go back. Washington Post.

Topp, J., Hille, J. H., Neumann, M., & Mötefindt, D. (2021). How a 4-day Work Week affects Agile Software Development Teams (arXiv:2111.08968). arXiv.

UNICEF (2023). Çocuk Haklarına Dair Sözleşme.çocuk-haklarına-dair-sözleşme#:~.

United Nations (2023). Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Veal, A. (2023a, March 23). 4-day work week trials have been labelled a ‘resounding success’. But 4 big questions need answers. The Conversation.

Veal, A. (2023b, März 23). Challenging the hype of a 4-day work week. University of Technology Sydney.

Veal, A. J. (2023). The 4-day work-week: The new leisure society?



How to Cite

Erguven, A. T., Ekinci, N. E., & Mustafa Can, K. (2023). More leisure less work: 4-day workweek. Journal of ROL Sport Sciences, 1098–1123.