Journal of ROL Sport Sciences <p>Journal of ROL Sports Sciences (JROLSS) is a refereed, scientific and international electronic journal, in which original research articles and review articles aiming to contribute to the field of Sports Sciences are published.</p> <p>JROLSS aims to provide an important resource in developing every aspect of sport with the understanding of bringing together topics that will contribute to the education, practice and theoretical fields of sport:</p> <ul> <li>Publish articles covering a wide range of topics,</li> <li>To publish quantitative, qualitative, mixed and single-subject methodology research and critical review articles that will contribute theoretically to the field and combine theory and practice,</li> <li>From an international perspective "Training Science: Exercise Physiology, Physical Activity and Health, Physical Fitness, Movement and Training Science, Nutrition and Doping in Sport, Sports Genetics; Physical Education and Sport Education: Skill Learning, Educational Games, Sport Education; Sport Management: Sport Economics, Sport History, Organizational Behavior in Sport, Recreation Management in Sport, Consumer Behavior in Sport" to provide a forum for the publication of original research,</li> <li>To bring together international authors and readers from various disciplines and professional fields to better understand key issues in sport.</li> </ul> <p><strong>NOTE:</strong> JROLSS <a href="">Editorial Board</a> has decided to give <strong>"Best Research Award"</strong> in each issue starting from 2024. In this direction, high quality studies will be awarded among the articles published in the relevant issues, taking into account the principle of complete impartiality.<em> <strong>JROLSS aims to encourage Scientists to publish the best.</strong></em></p> <p><strong>Points to be Considered in the Evaluation Method: </strong></p> <p><em>a). The original and added value of the published articles will be taken into consideration,</em></p> <p><em>b). The presentation of the article to the Scientific Field will be taken into account. </em></p> <p><strong><sup>*</sup>NOTE: </strong><u>JROLSS DOES NOT ACCEPT STUDIES ON LOCATION (The Case/Example of ...) and COVID-19.</u></p> <p><strong><sup>**</sup>NOTE: </strong>JROLSS demands the Ethics Committee Report for Scientific Research. At the same time, submitted candidate articles must be prepared in accordance with our <a href="">Publication Ethics &amp; Malpractice</a> policies. Manuscripts that do not comply with our policies will be returned without evaluation.</p> <p>JROLSS only accepts articles in English and Turkish. Authors should use only one spelling style (British, American or Turkish) in their articles.</p> <p>JROLSS is a member of <a href="">International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)</a> since January 2023 and is open access, independent academic journal. <a href="">Article Processing Charges</a> are <strong>$250</strong>, regardless of acceptance/rejection.</p> <p><strong>Publication Frequency [<span style="font-family: Arial;">Quarterly</span>]: </strong>JROLSS publishes quarterly from 2023 -Exception of the Special Issues- (<strong>March</strong>,<strong> June</strong>, <strong>September</strong> and <strong>December</strong>). </p> <p><strong>Visibility:</strong> indexed within <a href="">H.W Wilson</a>, <a href="">SPORTDiscus</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">Sherpa Romeo</a>, <a href="">EBSCO</a>, <a href="">ERIHPLUS</a>, <a href=";ID=Fqszz4kBQzmg-9NMUam8">SOBIAD</a>, <a href=";topics=4d273f3a-6bad-4bb2-baee-23e930c8aeca">CABI Leisure Tourism</a>, <a href="">CABI Abstracts and Global Health Database</a> and <a href="">other databases</a>.</p> <p><strong>Registering &amp; Submission:</strong> If you are interested in submitting your manuscript, please register at <a href=""></a>. After creating a membership, you can send your article for evaluation from our web address after editing your article from <a href="">our related files</a>. If you have any questions, you can easily contact <a href=""></a> and <a href=""></a> e-mail addresses.</p> <p><strong><em>Update: </em></strong><em>04.30.2024</em></p> Dr. Levent CEYLAN en-US Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2717-9508 Examining the relationship between internet addiction, psychological resilience, social isolation and organisational citizenship behaviour <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between internet addiction, social isolation, psychological resilience and organisational citizenship behaviour in physical education teachers. For this purpose, a hypothetical model was developed based on the relevant literature. The research was conducted with 840 physical education teachers working in schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education between 2020-2021 academic years. Young Internet Addiction Scale, Nottingham Health Profile (NSP), Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults, Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale and Personal Information Form were used in the study. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used to analyse the data. The significance level was determined as 0.05. According to the results obtained from the analyses, the proposed hypothetical model was confirmed. Accordingly, internet addiction positively affects social isolation. On the other hand, internet addiction affects psychological resilience negatively. The effect of social isolation on psychological resilience is negative. Psychological resilience has a positive effect on organisational citizenship behaviour. In the proposed model, it was found that there are direct effects between internet addiction, social isolation, psychological resilience and organisational citizenship behaviour, but there are no indirect effects.</p> Selman Cutuk Fikret Soyer Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 1 19 10.5281/zenodo.10867915 The effect of continuous running on body hydration levels: A comparison between treadmill and outdoor environments <p><em>The literature indicates a negative impact of changes in body hydration levels, particularly on aerobic performance in athletes. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of completing an 8 km run in an outdoor setting and on a treadmill on body hydration levels. Fifteen female volunteer volleyball players with a minimum of 3 years of volleyball training experience participated in the study. However, only 10 individuals completed the study according to all study protocols. Body composition analysis was conducted before and after the runs in both environments. Additionally, specific gravity measurements of urine were taken to determine body hydration levels. Furthermore, completion times, minimum-maximum, and average heart rates of the runs were recorded. The statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences in body hydration level changes before and after the run in both protocols (p&lt;0.05). Comparison of hydration levels between run protocols also showed significant differences (p&lt;0.05). No significant differences were found in minimum, maximum, and average heart rates between the two run protocols (p&gt;0.05). However, significant differences were observed in completion times between the run protocols (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, it is evident that treadmill running has a higher impact on body weight and body hydration changes.</em></p> Erkan Demirkan Bengusu Yilmaz Mehmet Ismail Tosun Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 20 29 10.5281/zenodo.10868151 Investigation of sport participation motivation and psychological resilience in football players <p>This study aims to examine the motives for participation in sports and the psychological resilience of soccer players. A total of 351 volunteer football players who had been actively playing football for at least 5 years participated in the study. Psychological resilience scale for adults and sport participation motivation scale were used as data collection tools in the study. According to the study results, those aged 18-21 use different sports participation motives. There are differences between age groups in psychological resilience sub-dimensions. A high relationship was found between the sub-dimensions of sport participation and psychological resilience sub-dimensions. This correlation may be due to the team unity of football players. When the differences between the positions are analysed, there are differences in the sub-dimensions of sports participation and psychological resilience. These differences can be related to the position and abilities of the players due to the game structure.</p> Hamza Kucuk Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 30 40 10.5281/zenodo.10876509 Nutrition and exercise strategies in football players aged 12-13: A study on FIFA 11+ Kids warm-up program and chocolate milk <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the FIFA 11+ for Kids warm-up program and high-protein chocolate milk on athlete health and performance. The study included 24 volunteer male football players, aged 12-13, actively playing licensed football (age: 12.52±0.51 years; height: 152.64±9.67 cm; weight: 43.73±10.40 kg; body mass index (BMI): 18.52±2.59 kg/m<sup>2</sup>). Participants were randomly divided into four groups: Chocolate Milk + FIFA 11+ (n=6), Chocolate Milk + General Warm-Up (n=6), Fruit Juice + FIFA 11+ (n=6), Fruit Juice + General Warm-Up (n=6). Over 4 weeks, different protocols were administered, providing chocolate milk or fruit juice twice a week, alongside the standard football warm-up and the FIFA 11+ for Kids warm-up program before training. Before and after the 4-week exercise protocols, football players performed tests including speed, agility, vertical jump (VJ), anaerobic power, ball-kicking speed, sit-up, Functional Movement Screening (FMS), and Functional Performance Tests (FPT). Significant differences were found in the pre and post-test results for the 6-m Timed hop in the Chocolate Milk + FIFA 11+ group (p&lt;0.05). In the Fruit Juice + FIFA 11+ group, significant differences were observed in both the Medial Side Triple Hop for Distance (MSTH) left foot and Medial Rotation Hop (MRH) left foot (p&lt;0.05). No significant differences were detected in the hop tests, performance tests, and FMS scores, both in the pre-post test results and in the ANOVA test results for the groups (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, the FIFA 11+ for Kids warm-up program, irrespective of the nutritional supplement administered, has led to specific changes in the hop test results of the players, yet it did not produce a significant effect on general performance tests and FMS scores.</p> Hakki Mor Mekki Abdioglu Kursat Acar Rıfat Yurtseven Zehra Kargin Fatih Karakas Ahmet Mor Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 41 63 10.5281/zenodo.10876895 Assessing the environment of athletic talent development: A study of young male football players in academy leagues <p class="TURKISHABSTRACT"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-style: normal;">This study examines talent development to determine the factors that influence the development of young male soccer players. The study involved 225 male soccer players playing in the academy leagues of the Turkish Soccer Association. The data was collected using a demographic questionnaire and the “Sporting Talent Development Environment Scale” translated into Turkish. Statistical analyzes using SPSS 22 confirmed the reliability of the data collected and its suitability for parametric tests. The results showed that there were no significant differences in talent development depending on educational level, with the exception of holistic quality preparation, where a significant difference was found. In addition, the correlations between age and the subscales of the scale revealed negative correlations with holistic quality preparation, planning expectations and supportive environment. These results are promising for the development of more effective and informed talent development strategies in sport and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of athletic ability in young male soccer players.</span></p> Melek Bayindir Hakan Kolayis Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 64 72 10.5281/zenodo.10877453 Examining the factors developing national bicycle policies in promoting bicycle use <p><em>Bicycle is accepted by global, national and local governments as an efficient and effective tool in achieving goals such as transportation, sports, healthy and active life, education, economy, climate, environment and sustainability. The aim of this research is to evaluate the factors that constitute national cycling policies in popularizing cycling, with the opinions of sports managers. In the research, qualitative research method was chosen and phenomenology approach was used. “Interview method” was chosen as the data collection method and “semi-structured interview form” was used. Participants were selected with the “criterion sampling” method, one of the “purposeful sampling” methods. In the research, interviews were conducted with 6 participants, and “descriptive analysis” and “content analysis” methods were used to analyze the data. In the findings of the research; Participants’ views on the factors that constitute national cycling policies in popularizing bicycle use were revealed. Themes related to these are; It is coded as a) education b) health c) environmental awareness d) organizational structures e) legal framework f) sports and recreation g) bicycle tourism h) cultural adaptation ı) economic budget j) purpose awareness k) transportation system. As a result, by evaluating the current situation of the bicycle in Turkey, its infrastructure and legal requirements, its multifaceted nature and its contribution to the management goals separately and as a whole, we have developed a framework that encourages, popularizes, participates and coordinates the use of bicycles, with short and long-term concrete targets. Attention was drawn to the need for a national cycling policy.</em></p> Ahmet Elveren Muberra Celebi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 73 98 10.5281/zenodo.10877870 Examination of the relationship between the self-efficacy and decision-making styles of wrestling referees <p>The present study aims to determine and comparatively examine the relationship between the self-efficacy and decision-making styles of wrestling referees. In the research, the relational screening model, one of the quantitative models, was used, and the criterion sampling method, one of the purposeful sampling methods, was used in sampling selection. A total of 106 man referees, 77 national and 29 international, participated in the study. The mean age of the participating referees was 39.18±7.60 years, and the mean years of wrestling refereeing was 13.62±7.53 years. The decision-making styles of the wrestling referees were measured using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and their self-efficacy was measured using the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients of the scales were determined as 0.78 for the Melbourne Decision Making Scale and 0.92 for the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. The data obtained were transferred to the SPSS 26.0 program and the Pearson Correlation Analysis, Independent Samples T-Test, One-Way ANOVA and descriptive statistics were applied. According to the findings of the study, there was a significant positive correlation between the self-efficacy scores of the referees and their self- esteem in decision-making and careful decision-making scores, and a significant negative correlation between the suspensive and panic decision-making scores (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, it was determined that as referee self-efficacy increased, the level of self-esteem in decision-making and careful decision-making increased, and the level of suspensive and panic decision-making decreased.</p> Musab Cagin Sezen Cimen Polat Selim Aslan Halil Ibrahim Cicioglu Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 99 111 10.5281/zenodo.10886022 SLC6A4 gene 5-HTTLPR distribution in futsal and football players <p class="TURKISHABSTRACT" style="margin-bottom: 6.0pt;"><span lang="EN-US">In this study, we investigated the distribution of the S and L alleles of the 5-HTTLPR promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene in male and female futsal and football players. A total of 48 athletes participated in the study, including 12 female football players, 12 female futsal players, 12 male football players and 12 male futsal players with an average age of 22.25 years, who have been active in sports for at least five years and who were selected voluntarily and randomly. When analysing the allele and genotype distribution of the athletes’ 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, it was found that they had (56.2%) S, (43.8%) L alleles, 31.2% S/S, 50% L/S and 50% L/L genotypes. In the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 polymorphism, significant results were found in the allele distribution between the branches (p&lt;0.05), but no significant findings were found in genotype distribution (p&gt;0.05). the “La” allele was found more frequently in football players, while the “S” allele was found more frequently in futsal players. For the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, no significant finding was found in the allele and genotype distribution between the branches (p&gt;0.05). The fact that the S allele and the S/S genotype were more common in the allele and genotype distribution of the athletes in the study than the L allele and the L/L genotype indicates that the futsal and football players participating in the study have a genetic predisposition to aggression. It was predicted that multi-gene research would be effective in defining phenotypes. It was suggested that sports genetics research should not be considered independent of epigenetic factors and that studies with larger sample groups should be conducted in this area.</span></p> Kubra Duran Murat Elioz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 112 124 10.5281/zenodo.10886110 The effect of moral disengagement in sports on sportsmanship behavior in boxers <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of distancing from morality in sport on the sporting behavior of boxers with regard to some socio-demographic characteristics. A relational survey model with descriptive properties was used for the study. The study sample consisted of 263 individuals randomly selected from active boxers. The Moral Distancing in Sport Scale and the Sporting Behavior Scale were used as data collection instruments. The study used the t-test to determine if scores differed by gender, scale total, and national athlete status, and the one-factorial analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison test were used to determine if they differed by income level, education level, and age of the athlete. The magnitude and direction of the relationship between participants’ age, level of moral disengagement in sport, and sport behavior were determined using the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the equation of the relationship was determined by regression analysis. It was found that male boxers distanced themselves more from morality than female boxers and that female boxers exhibited more athletic behavior. However, it was found that middle-income athletes exhibited more athletic behavior than high-income athletes. It was also found that boxers aged 1-3 years exhibited more athletic behavior than athletes aged 10 years and older.</p> Muhammet Kusan Sila Yilmaz Soner Cankaya Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 125 138 10.5281/zenodo.10886297 The effect of 8-week submaximal strength training on accuracy rate of rifle shooting on the personnel of gendarmerie commando units <p>The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of submaximal strength training on the shooting accuracy of personnel serving in the Gendarmerie Commando Units. 80 participants volunteered for this study. Aerobic endurance was assessed using a 20-meter shuttle run test, while maximal strength tests (1RM) were obtained through the repetition method. The shooting test involved 3 unsupported shots from a prone position at a distance of 200 meters after a 1000-meter rifle run with equipment within 6 minutes. Strength parameters included squad, bench press, leg extension, lat pull down, leg curl, triceps push down, butterfly and seated chest press. The intensity of the strength training was set at 80-85% for the initial 4 weeks and 90% for the last 4 weeks. The protocol consisted of 3 sets of 6 repetitions with a rest period of 3 minutes. The experimental group followed the strength training protocol, while the control group engaged in the regular sports activities included in their daily training program. Following the eight weeks of training, the shooting test, 20-meter shuttle run test, and strength parameters including 1RMs were measured as the final assessments. Paired sample t-tests were used for within-group pre-test and post-test values, while independent sample t-tests were employed for between-group analyses. The shooting test results revealed that the experimental group achieved an average of 2.37±0.58 hits on target, whereas the control group achieved 1.47±0.71 hits. Consequently, it was observed that the applied strength training had a positive effect on 1RMs and shooting accuracy.</p> Noyan Pamukcu Fatma Nese Sahin Murat Erdoğan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 139 150 10.5281/zenodo.10886485 Gender roles and psychological well-being of university athletes <p><em>This study aimed to examine the relationships between university athletes’ levels of psychological well-being and their perceptions of gender roles in terms of demographic variables. The research was conducted with a total of 302 participants, including 157 female and 145 male student athletes studying at Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University. The data collection tools included a “Personal Information Form,” “Psychological Well-Being Scale,” and “Bem Sex Role Inventory.” Statistical methods such as descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s Alpha values, Two-Way ANOVA, MANOVA, and Independent Samples t-Test were used for data analysis using the SPSS 22.0 program. According to the findings, there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of psychological well-being of the participants based on sports branch type and demographic variables. However, participants engaged in team sports exhibited significantly higher masculinity levels compared to those engaged in individual sports. Statistically significant differences were also found in femininity and masculinity levels based on gender and sports branch type. No significant differences were found in psychological well-being and gender role perceptions based on the age of starting sports and weekly exercise durations. Significant differences were determined in the levels of psychological well-being based on degree attainment status. The findings indicate that the levels of psychological well-being and perceptions of gender roles in athletes are influenced by demographic factors. The results show that the level of psychological well-being and perception of gender roles in athletes are affected by demographic factors. In particular, it was observed that the athletes’ sport age and the status of obtaining a degree in the sport they are interested in are determinant on their psychological well-being levels. In addition, it was determined that athletes’ perception levels of gender roles differed according to variables such as weekly hours of sport and number of days of sport per week.</em></p> Sinem Parlakyildiz Sevim Kul Avan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 151 175 10.5281/zenodo.10733946 Determining the leadership orientations of sports sciences faculty students and examining their relationships with their personality traits <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the leadership orientations of sports sciences faculty students according to some parameters and to determine their relationship with their personality traits. The study covers a group of students (n = 362) studying at the Faculty of Sports Sciences, whose ages vary between 18-30 years old. Leadership Tendencies and Big Five Personality Traits surveys were used as measurement tools in the study. T-test, one-way analysis of variance and LSD tests were used in statistical procedures. While the sub-dimensions of the leadership scale, human-oriented leadership, are similar to each other, significant differences were detected in the sub-dimensions of structural leadership, transformational leadership and charismatic leadership according to gender. While there was no significant difference in the extroversion and emotional balance sub-dimensions of the Big Five personality traits according to gender, a significant difference was found in the dimensions including agreeableness, responsibility and intelligence/imagination. A statistically significant difference was found in all sub-dimensions of leadership orientations according to the sports age variable. People-oriented, structure-oriented, transformational leadership and charismatic leadership orientations were found to have a negative significant relationship with emotional instability. It was concluded that the leadership orientations of sports faculty students vary according to gender, competitive status and sports age, but do not vary according to the department they study. In order for sports faculty students to have better leadership qualities and positive personality traits, it is recommended that their active participation in competitions be increased and that they start their sports at an earlier age.</p> Yakup Yazici Osman Imamoglu Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of ROL Sport Sciences 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 5 1 176 192 10.5281/zenodo.10886972